Preventive safety systems offer predictive intelligence and are adapted to individual drivers to reach the highest safety benefits. A range of technologies are used and integrated in safety applications:
- Sensing technologies for environment perception (infrared sensing, video and camera image perception, LIDAR / RADAR sensors, gyro sensors sensing vehicle motion and acceleration, inertial sensors such as tachometers and speedometers). Processing the sensor data through mathematical algorithms results in a virtual understanding of the vehicle environment - for example, the path and position of vulnerable road users from other vehicles and road infrastructure.
- In-vehicle digital maps and positioning technologies (GPS, GNSS and GALILEO) can be perceived as further sensing systems to accurately identify the vehicle position and interpret the environment to help the prediction of a vehicle’s path, especially a vehicle ahead.
- Wireless communication technologies can send information from the vehicle to other vehicles or infrastructure, as well as enable high-value safety information to be received to further complement the real-time road information.
In addition, the human machine interface (HMI) ensures that the preventive and active safety applications operate according to the expectations and ergonomic restrictions of the driver and his/her physiology.
The objective of preventive safety applications is to support the driver, thus changing his/her driving behavior in certain situations. Predicting the behavior of both the traffic and the other road users is of utmost importance - not to endanger people, but contribute to overall road safety for everyone as well as to contribute to an effective traffic flow.
Preventive and active safety systems are often referred to as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems or ADA applications.
The above figure illustrates how information from the road environment, vehicle and driver is collected with different technologies (camera, radar, digital map, vehicle communications) and processed to be interpreted and modeled. The vehicle safety application performs the risk assessment and decision making regarding sending warnings and assistance functions to the driver via the human machine interface.
The driver, as a supervisor of safety systems, can be adequately warned of dangers to avoid or mitigate accidents and remain in the 'loop' of the application.